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Transplanted Family Trees – In search of Yazbek: What makes us who we are?

This article is the third and final installment written by Cecile Yazbek who was born into a Lebanese family in East London, South Africa. She is the author of four books all related to the Lebanese diaspora. Her other installments include Albinos in the Laager and The Chasm of Assimilation. All photos courtesy of author.

Yazbek family. Seated centre: Tamar and beside him, his second wife, Emily Azerach from Constantinople. Kroonstad, South Africa, Circa 1914.

What makes us who we are?

On a quest to link the scatterlings of my family who emigrated from Lebanon to South Africa, New Zealand and South America, I pick among spectres and shadows, searching for our history in faded paper squares – nameless and dateless photographs in moth-eaten albums. In our relocations with transliterated names, painful gaps in knowledge reaching back less than three hundred years, make the assembly of an accurate history and family tree a process filled with emotion. We are dispersed to the four winds, some never to be known.

Our little and big world

In the 1960s, my father’s brother Victor and his wife Freda took a cruise from Cape Town to Rio de Janeiro. Wandering among elegant waterfront shops, they went into a jewellery store. When Freda admired a few pieces, Victor said to her in Arabic, ‘Too expensive.’

The shop assistant erupted, ‘Do you speak Arabic? Where are you from?’ Having established that they were related, a crowd of Brazilian Yazbeks mounted a banquet to welcome the visitors.

Not long after that, my parents visited Hadeth, Beirut to meet my father’s first cousins. His uncles wore the honorific tarboosh while the children celebrated education as lawyers, doctors and dentists.

The following year, a pair of cousins visited us in South Africa. On Sunday, our Lebanese relatives accompanied us to mass in our parish where my father sat loudly in the front row. The exuberance of reunion still rings in my ears.

Then war smashed everything in Lebanon – our cousins went to France, Cyprus, the United States and contact was lost, due in no small measure to the devastation of their homeland and a family casualty. Overseas, we were powerless to help except with financial offerings that probably fell into someone’s war chest.

I migrated to Australia in 1986 and searched in the Lebanese community for Yazbek relatives but found no Christians or city dwellers, the two main features of my father’s family.            

In 1999, a South African cousin took his mother at last to Lebanon. Weeping the tears of exiles, they walked the ancestral stones. In Hadeth, Beirut on a quest for Yazbeks, they were told, ‘Oh, you are looking for the converts.’ My cousins shrugged and travelled on, delighting in scenery, familiar foods and shrines.

People of the Cedars, purporting to be a comprehensive guide to South Africa’s Lebanese community, was published in 2011. Yazbeks in South Africa are a vast, multi-generational, educated and socially engaged clan. This is how we were described: ‘The Uzbeks are of Russian, Persian, Afghan and Arabic origin…originally…Sunni Moslem.’ I was shocked to see these few lines about the Yazbeks, when smaller families spanned pages.

Ottoman engagement

Yazbek Family. Standing: Elaine, Victor, Susie

My cousin, Dr. Ivor Yazbek drew up an extensive family tree and traced our line back to around 1800, when Yazbek, one of five sons, was born.

My great-grandfather Tamar Yazbek (born 1840), lived in the palace of the Ottoman rulers in Beirut as their language teacher. This raised questions about his ancestral religion. When he was widowed in 1882, the Ottomans gave him a twelve-year-old girl, Emily Azerach from Constantinople, as a gift. In 1910, he took her to Africa where he died, leaving her with eight children, two from his first wife.

Tamar and Emily’s eldest daughter, Farida, married Antoun, son of his brother, Boutros, a Maronite priest. These are my grandparents. Our Christian heritage seems clear. But the South African book suggests that, unlike the rest of the community, Yazbeks are not direct descendants of the Phoenicians and have no Christian lineage. Some family members are outraged by the idea of an origin other than Catholic, their religious zeal disdainful of non-Christians and Protestants alike.

Me and You = Us?

Belonging, more personal and individual than identity, contains a sense of feeling included, of being at home. When I accept the disparate parts of the person I am, I communicate this to you and give you the space to be the person you are. Then we are in contact with our shared humanity. Amin Maalouf expands this idea. For it is often the way we look at other people that imprisons them within their own narrowest allegiances. And it is also the way we look at them that may set them free.’

Joe and Bertha and their 12 grandchildren, 1991.

This view seems to underpin ‘Peter Singer’s theory of the Expanding Circle – the optimistic proposal that our moral sense, though shaped by evolution to overvalue self, kin and clan, can propel us on a path of moral progress as our reasoning forces us to generalise it to larger and larger circles of sentient beings’.

My father’s Lebanese culture and over-arching Catholic belief in the equality of all, gave him courage to act against apartheid in public life in South Africa.

The welcome by those Yazbeks in Brazil exemplifies Lebanese hospitality. Their strong identification with their origins imparts a sense of belonging to strangers in the diaspora, and enables them to accept all who cross their path, regardless of religious affiliation. Is this capacity enhanced by their situation in an inclusive society? In a society riven by race and religious division, such as South Africa, does internalised racism promote people’s quest to identify with a unique ancestry such as Phoenician or Pharaonic that sets them apart and gives them an inner acceptance for physical features not shared with the dominant group?

A cousin in South Africa had his DNA sequenced to find out that he was ‘70% French, some Iraqi, plus…’ In the light of current racial profiling, will he carry that piece of paper on his person for display or concealment depending on where he travels?

Because of my South African apartheid experience of exclusive identities, I deliberately claim no adherence to any sect. I prefer to express the inclusive hospitality of my Lebanese origins and the social justice brand of my upbringing. It is the security and breadth of my cultural identification that enables me to reach out beyond the confines of expedient labels.


Hage, Ghassan. White Nation. London: Pluto Press, 1998.

Hanna, Ken and Charbel Habchi. People of the Cedars. South Africa, 2011.

Malouf, Amin On Identity. London: Harvill Press, 2000.

Pinker, Steven. “The Moral Instinct.” The New York Times. January 13, 2008

Further Reading

Thich Nhat Hanh was a Vietnamese monk, Buddhist teacher, poet, and Zen master. He was the author of 25 books translated in many languages.

Dr. H.I. Yazbek private archive. South Africa.

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  1. Stephen Estephan Yazbeck migrated to Australia in the late 1800s and was directed by family who had preceded him in Australia to alter his name to Cannon shortly after arrival and his descendants have all been known as Cannons since then. A Maronite priest named Yazbeck came to Australia and along with another priest who was a Malouf established a church in Sydney and returned to Lebanon. A few Yazbecks who arrived decades later retained their name. We have always wondered why the name was changed at the beginning.

  2. Cecile, what a wonderful photograph and article. I am helping my two grandsons map out their family tree and Tamar Yazbek is their GGG grandfather. I have copy of his death certificate (5 Feb 1925) which records that his widow was “Emily Yazbek born Zarrifi, married under Syrian law out of community of property in Syrian law”. As the children listed are all from her marriage to Tamar, and she survives him, we can safely assume that Emily Azerach was the first wife. Would you like a copy of this document?
    Kind regards Jan

    1. Hello Jan, apologies for the late response to your comment. It would be great, if possible if you could take a photograph of Tamar’s death certificate and post it here.
      Emily, Tamar’s widow had the last name Azerach (Green) and was of the Zarifi banking family.
      The name of Tamar’s first wife who birthed Willie(Wadia) and Najeeb is not known to us. Names and dates appear to be confused and supplanted when convenient. Would you mind posting the link your grandchildren have all the way back to Tamar, please?
      Many thanks, best wishes, Cecile

  3. Hello Cecille, I much enjoyed this. I just learned that my biological father is Catholic Lebanese from South Africa. I am having no luck finding any sort of genealogy or archives for Catholic Lebanese from 1980. Would be so kind and to maybe suggest a website or how I can dig to find more information? I would greatly appreciate it!

    1. Hello Renee
      Thanks for your contact.
      May I suggest a few leads: Professor Guita Hourani of the former Lebanese Emigration Research Centre May be able to help you.
      In Johannesburg, Mr Ken Hanna and Father Charbel Habchi have done some research in the South African Lebanese community and published a book called “People of the Cedars”.
      If you would like to tell me where you live and more or less when you were born, also your father’s last name, I may be able to make some inquiries.
      You are welcome to contact me on Facebook messenger
      Best wishes,

  4. “But the South African book suggests that, unlike the rest of the community, Yazbeks are not direct descendants of the Phoenicians and have no Christian lineage” how do they know and why?

    very interesting study!!!

    1. Hi Andres Emen, Thanks for your comments. There is much that I don’t know and the certainty of the authors of the ‘comprehensive guide to the Lebanese community of South Africa’ about the origins of Yazbek is intriguing. I too ask the question, ‘how do they know?’ Perhaps B. Yazbek’s suggestion that it is a ‘legend’ can also be considered. Entertaining thoughts of our origins and connections can wake the imagination!

  5. HI ! My name is Andres Emen (originally Himmam) from Ecuador. My great granfther was Khalil Semaan Himmam and his father was Semaan Himmam Yazbeck. My great grand father came to Ecuador around 1905, he was from Jdeidet el Metn.

    My real name and all Emen family in ECuador, should be Yazbek.

    Are we part of the same Yazbek family? Actually I got the family tree from Jdeidet in a trip I made. There was the branch of my great grand father with his siblings. The branch was cut off since all of them went out from Lebanon to Brazil, ECuador and USA. The family from Brazil is Simon (translation of Semaan)

    I would be pleased to know that =)

  6. Cecile thank you for the article. just shared this on facebook, for ur info, 2 of my grand uncles migrated from jdeidet to south africa, Yazbeks maybe some changed to Kaplan or Richa? (first name/mothers name)

    dont mind the uzbek stuff 🙂 its a legend… our dna ancestry is 97% lebanese… and 3% neanderthal

    1. Hi! I am also from the YAzbek family tree of Jdeidet El Metn.

      My great grandfather came of from Lebanon at 1905. I got the genealogy tree when I was there. We are Emen as Lastname in Ecuador due to some civil registration stuff.

      My great granfather was Khalil Semaan Himmam son of Semaan Himmam Yazbek.

      Are we part of the family Cecile YAzbek is showing? Because she mentions a place call Hadeth

      1. Hi Andres, sorry i just checked the comment. and welcome to the great story of Yazbek 🙂
        I assume you are referring to the family tree that our Moukhtar Michel Yazbek in Jdeidet compiled. Yes Himmem, Rashid, Kabalan/Kaplan,.. are very common names in the lineage. I know the Yazbeks in Hadath are a different lineage but we are very close (look for Elsa Yazbek for example) also in the Shouf (Druze) and Baalbek (Shiaa ex: Sheikh Mohammed). if you send me mail yazbek at gmail, we can connect on 23andme.

    2. Hi B. Yazbek, Thanks for your interest in my article. As I wrote at the end, it is the inclusiveness of our Lebanese origins and culture that I relish and try to express. There must be millions of Yazbeks around the world and as the older generation have mostly moved on, there is no one left to ask, so we can be entertained by some of the myths!

  7. Thank you for your contribution to our knowledge of the Lebanese diaspora. Each one of us can look outward at the world and trace the movements of our families, but of course not everyone does. In effect, when we travel the community feeling induced by our shared Lebanese history is very much in evidence, even if we are not actually related. I was interested to read that there is some inter-faith history in your family. Unfortunately at this time so many westerners do not realise that not all of the Middle East is Muslim, and that there is also a strong Christian identity among Lebanese living overseas.

    1. Thank you, Yvonne, indeed, in our diversity, lies our strength. I have also met secular humanists in the younger generation who are disillusioned with sectarianism.

  8. Thank you, Cecile, for this illuminating glimpse of history. The Yazbek story is yet one more fascinating example of the richness of the human journey. The idea that any of us has a ‘pure’ ancestry is being consistently and comprehensively exploded. It was this poisonous belief that has caused and continues to cause such abominable actions – the genocide of whole groups of people and the oppressive discrimination against others. We celebrate instead our exciting diversity that allows us to embrace the oneness of our species and the abstract concepts of justice and lovingkindness. Bravo.

  9. To know who we are, we need to know our roots. Cecile Yazbek has an insatiable appetite to go deep into her family tree. Congratulations and keep on publishing”. Leila Bishara

    1. Thank you, Leila. It is in those deep spaces that we find ourselves in the common soil of our human origins.

  10. Thank you for these excellent articles, Cecile. Hospitality, cultural confidence and an expanding inclusivity are more than utopian ideals when grounded in your personal narrative. I am finding them also helpful criteria in understanding the current fears and divisiveness in our political and social discourse, not to mention the warmth and humanity of these stories! Richard

  11. I was particularly interested in the way in which Cecile’s advocacy of commitment to responding to socially “larger and larger circles” is so clearly also nurtured by her pride in the specifics of her Lebanese family’s history and culture. It is this kind of linkage which will underpin the success of multicultural societies like Australia. Congratulations Cecile for modelling the way so clearly.

    1. Thank you Margaret. When we are strong in our identifications, we have the ability to reach out further and further – a true strength for a multicultural society.

  12. In a time when racial hate and protectionism garner headlines, this small (and deep) message about interconnection and respect is especially important. Bravo!

  13. I am very impressed by the quotation that it is the way we regard other people that triggers their reaction: either imprisonment in their own narrow and closed viewpoints and attitudes or the wonderful freedom effected by inclusiveness. As to hospitality, I recently attended the funeral of my daughter’s Lebanese mother-in-law – a woman whose family I very rarely see because of the tyranny of distance and language differences. The large family’s hospitality and welcome were genuine and absolutely heart-warming.

    1. Thank you, Imogen. The culture of hospitality is deeply ingrained. It reminds me somewhat of the Dalai Lama saying: ‘my religion is friendship’.

  14. Cecile Yazbek, what a Big Question you ask, about your religious origins. Fascinating reading, wonderful you have taken time and given intellectual effort to exploring these issues with such delicacy. Congratulations on the trilogy.

  15. A fantastic look at culture and at how, inter alia, we should all respect each other as fellow humans, regardless of our disparate origins. Anything else is clearly absurd. Thank you, Cecile Yazbek.